The Netherlands Council for the Judiciary has conducted a further study of the results of the ENCJ Independence and Accountability report 2014-2015.
The working paper Independence and Accountability: Judicial Perceptions and Formal Safeguards uses the data gathered by ENCJ to gain a deeper understanding of various ways to approach judicial independence and the main determinants of independence through a statistical analysis. The paper sets out to answer three questions in particular. First, do perceptions of independencediffer between citizens and judges? Second, which are the important determinants of independence, as perceived by judges in judicial practice? And third, what is the relationship, if any, between perceived independence and formal safeguards of independence?